When air vibrated
in a closed end pipe, there is actually some air particles
vibrating at the opening of the pipe. So for the fundamental
pattern, the wave inside the pipe is not equal to 1/4 lambda. It
is described as 'end correction' in our textbook and the actual
length inside the pipe is less than 1/4 lambda. How can we
minimize this effect?
To minimize the
end effects, and edge effects, which occur in organ pipes,
capacitors, induction coils etc. make the object so that the end
or edge is minimized relative to the whole structure. If you have
an opportunity to look at a pipe organ, perhaps in a nearby
church, notice that the shorter pipes are made thinner also, so
that the end area remains small compared to the length.